Beethoven: Piano Sonata No.22 in F major


For the benefit of all pianists learning this work, we present to you a concise and easy to use analysis of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No.22 in F major Op.54.

First Movement (Tempo D’un Menuetto)

Form: Rondo Form. F Major.

Beethoven Piano Sonata No.22 in F major, Op.54 Analysis 1

Rondo form is unusual for the first movement of a Sonata.


Bars 1-25: First Subject in F major (tonic). The first subject contains a considerably amount of imitation. The sentence, Bars 1-5, is repeated at Bars 5-9, and Bars 9-17 at Bars 17-25. It ends with full close in the tonic, Bar 25.

Bars 25-63: Episode. This episode is canonical in character; the whole of it is based upon the new subject, which commences in tonic key, Bar 25, and is imitated in the treble, Bar 26, at the eighth. It ends upon the dominant, Bars 63.

Bars 63-71: Bars 63-71 form a passage leading to and overlapping the second entry of the first subject.

Bars 70-94: First Subject in original key. The first subject is varied on its re-appearance, Bar 70.


Bars 94-106: Episode. This episode resembles that in the first part, but it is considerably shortened.


Bars 106-137: First Subject (varied) in original key. The first subject is again varied and also extended, ending with a cadenza, Bar 137.

Bars 137-End: Coda. The Coda refers to the first subject and is constructed on pedal point.

Second Movement (Allegretto)

Form: Modified Sonata Form. F Major.

Beethoven Piano Sonata No.22 in F major, Op.54 Analysis 2

This movement consists of a series of repetitions of the subject announced in the bass, Bars 1-4, and the sequence, Bars 9-12, interspersed with short episodes. It closely conforms to the Toccata form, inasmuch as one subject is repeated over and over again in contrapuntal style; but it more nearly resembles Sonata Form than any other, although only the barest outline is followed.


Bars 1-13: First Subject in F major (tonic) The first subject commences with a passage of four bars in the bass, repeated in the treble two bars behind. The bass of Bars 5-6 is repeated in the treble of Bars 7-8. A sequence follows, ending in C major.

Bars 13-19: Accessory bars in C major. The accessory bars take the place of the second subject; they are founded upon Bar 1, beginning with pedal point in the bass.

Bars 20-21: Bar 20 leads to the repetition of the exposition, Bar 21 to the development.


Bars 22-115: The development consists of nothing but repetitions of the first subject in various keys, connected by episodes formed (principally) upon the first subject.


Bars 116-165: First Subject in F major (tonic). The first subject is in the original key upon tonic pedal point; it is considerably altered and extended.

Bars 165-End: Coda. The Coda simply refers to the first subject. Bars 165-173 are repeated with two bars added, Bars 173-183.